The Machete is Stavatti’s family of next generation Close Air Support, Attack, Counter Insurgency, Lead-In Fighter, Air Defense Fighter and Advanced Pilot Trainer aircraft. A series of aircraft designed to satisfy a breadth of military aviation requirements with a modular airframe, the Machete family includes the SM-27 Turboprop Machete, the SM-28 Turbofan Machete and the SM-47 Super Machete. Now under development to satisfy tomorrow’s military trainer, attack and air defense needs, the first Machetes can enter production as early as 2020.
The SM-28 Machete is a next generation single engine Attack aircraft optimized for Close Air Support (CAS), Anti-Armor, Precision All-Weather Attack, Interdiction, Maritime Strike and Lead-In Training. Powered by a 14,000 lb class GEAE F414 non-afterburning derivative turbofan, the SM-28 is a three surface aircraft featuring a moderate aspect ratio wing, canard foreplanes, twin vertical stabilizers and an all moving horizontal tail. With a maximum level speed in excess of 0.85 Mach, the SM-28 is armed with a 30mm cannon and can carry up to 12,000 lbs of ordnance over a tactical radius greater than 670 nm. Featuring an F-16 style, all-glass cockpit that incorporates F-16 flight control grips and reclined Martin Baker Mk16 ejection seats, the SM-28 Machete will be produced in single seat attack (SM-28S) and two seat tandem strike or trainer (SM-28T) configurations. With in-flight refueling capability, integrated avionics and 9-G plus maneuverability in the clean-configuration, the turbofan Machete will be available in basic strike configurations without radar, as well as fully-equipped Deluxe variants with Vixen 500E AESA or AN/APG-67 variant radar and a comprehensive EW/ECM Self Protection Suite.
Differing primarily in powerplant, air inlet and aft fuselage configuration, the SM-28 utilizes the same basic airframe as the turboprop SM-27, maintaining a very high degree of commonality such that a significant number of SM-28 and SM-27 parts, components and systems are interchangeable.
Committed to CAS, the SM-28 provides a true bridge of A-10 Warthog capabilities offering high-speed (Mach 0.85) and notable warload (12,000 lbs with 100% internal fuel and 15,000 lbs with 50% internal fuel) in a highly survivable turbofan package. While the SM-27S/T offers propeller-driven efficiency, the SM-28 uses proven military turbofans in a survivable configuration that is less vulnerable to enemy fire. With performance superior to that of the either the A-10 or Su-25 in many respects and the ability to deliver a precision payload of up to four GBU-32s or 20 GBU-39/Bs, turbofan Machetes offer a robust, capable and affordable CAS, Anti-Armor and precision strike solution.
Inspired by the A-10, the SM-28 is designed to serve as a successor to attack aircraft including the A-10 Warthog, Su-25 Frogfoot, A-7 Corsair II, A-4 Skyhawk, Buccaneer, Super Etendard and A-37 Dragonfly. Pending potential customer procurement interest, the SM-28 prototype could roll-out as early as 2018, followed by qualification at the AFFTC at Edwards AFB in 2020 and the start of LRIP in 2021-2022. The SM-28S/T will be qualified to MIL-HDBK-516B Airworthiness Certification as a fully capable Day/Night VFR and IFR (VMC/IMC) aircraft.
The SM-28S/T cockpit is designed to accommodate a wide spectrum of male and female crewmembers accommodating JPATS Cases 1 through 8 encompassing the 1st percentile female through the 99th percentile male (NATO) population range. This population range corresponds to crewmembers ranging from 4 ft 10 in/100 lbs through 6 ft 5 in/280 lbs. For planning and engineering development purposes, assumed standard crew-member weight is 260 lbs, including survival equipment.
The SM-28S flight crew consists of a single pilot seated on a Martin Baker MKUS.16L zero/zero ejection seat. The SM-28T flight crew consists of a pilot and Weapon Systems Officer (WSO)/Observer seated in tandem (fore and aft crewstations respectively) on Martin Baker MKUS.16L zero/zero ejection seats in satisfaction of the COIN/CAS/FAC role. In satisfaction of the Lead-In Trainer role, the SM-28T flight crew consists of a student and instructor seated in tandem (fore and aft crewstations respectively) in on Martin Baker MKUS.16L zero/zero ejection seats. Total standard SM-28T crewmember weight, including survival equipment, is 520 lbs.
The SM-28 is powered by one enhanced GEAE F414 non-afterburning derivative turbofan. Producing approximately 14,756 lbs sea level static thrust, the powerplant is optimized for non-afterburning, single engine operations. A highly reliable, proven engine, the F414 powers the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet.
Providing over 14,000 lbs of thrust, the non-afterburning F414 is conceptually similar to the F404-GE-F1D2, F404-GE-100D non-afterburning F404 variants which power the F-117A and Singapore A-4 Super Skyhawk respectively. Based on the F404-GE-400, these engines are two-shaft, low bypass ratio turbofans (BPR of 0.27) with a three stage fan, a seven stage HP compressor, a single stage HP turbine and a single stage LP turbine. Featuring a single-piece annular combustion chamber, the engines feature an electrohydromechanical control system. Powerplant mass flow at maximum SL static thrust is 187 lbs/s and pressure ratio is 30:1.
Derived from the F404, the The F414-GE-400 delivers 35% more thrust than the original F404. Featuring a Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) and improvements in component materials which allow higher operating temperatures, the F414 benefits from long-chord blisk fan technology.
Turbofan airflow is supplied via twin, rectangular, bifurcated fuselage side mounted air intakes which are raked aft 48 degrees. Spaced apart from the fuselage by an integral boundary layer diverter, the air inlets are of fixed, pitot type offering a capture area of adequate for mass flows up to 187 lbs/s. Air inlet pressure recovery is estimated at over 97% through Mach 1.0.
The SM-28 exhaust nozzle is of fixed, saw-tooth type to reduce aural signature based upon work performed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Of titanium construction, the exhaust nozzle and its internal liner are designed for a robust, long life. The SM-28 is equipped with a 142 kW Honeywell 36-150F Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) to facilitate self-starting and to provide ground power.
SM-28S/T armament includes fixed internal and expendable, external carried weapons.
SM-28S/T fixed internal armament includes one 30mm cannon mounted within a streamlined ventral fuselage fairing. The 30mm cannon is mounted directly to the aircraft fuselage on a vibration dampening mount as an integrated fixed weapon system. The 30mm cannon fairing is a permanent structural fixture engineered specifically for housing, supporting and stabilizing the 30mm cannon. 30mm cannon ammunition is fed through a link-less feed system supplied by, and contained within, an aft fuselage located armored ammunition drum. Ammunition is loaded/serviced through a ventral fuselage loading hatch. The cannon provides the aircraft with anti-armor/anti-aircraft capability.
The standard SM-28S/T cannon is the General Dynamics GAU-13/A 30mm derived from the GAU-8/A. The GAU-13/A is a four barrel, electrically driven cannon with a variable rate of fire of up to 3,000 rds/min. The GAU-13/A employs standard 30mm PGU-13 (HEI) and PGU-14 (API) ammunition with a muzzle velocity of 3,600 ft/sec. The SM-28 may also be fitted with the GAU-8/A or lightweight derivative thereof, resulting in three additional gun barrels and an increased rate-of-fire of up to 4,000 rds/min, but with a weight penalty of 281 lbs. In the SM-28S, the cannon may be provided with over 1,000 rounds of additional ammunition contained within an expanded ammunition drum located aft of the forward cockpit. In the SM-28T, a rectangular ammunition magazine located directly behind the aft crew station provides a total of 600 rds.
Up to 12,000 lbs of expendable, external stores and ordnance are carried on a total of eight external, wing-mounted hardpoints equipped with NATO standard 14-inch and 28-inch lug suspension systems. Of the eight hardpoints, two are rated to 1,000 lbs, two are rated to 2,000 lbs and four are rated to 2,500 lbs maximum external carriage capacity at a +7.5 g load factor. Four of the external wing hardpoints are plumbed for external fuel tanks, including the Sargent Fletcher #401315 150 USG tank as shared by the T-50. The SM-28 may carry up to 15,000 lbs of external stores if aircraft maximum internal fuel is limited to 3,000 lbs.
The Machete is designed primarily for air-to-ground missions, employing ordnance such as the AGM-65, GBU-39/B, GBU-31, GBU-32, GBU-38, CBU-97, CBU-59, BLU-107 and additional stores. Optimized for precision strike, the SM-28 employs GPS guided munitions, including the GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb (SBD) to dispatch ground threats with minimal collateral damage. The SM-28 can carry up to 28 GBU-39/Bs, or 6 AGM-65s or 2 GBU-31 JDAMS externally in addition to 2 AIM-9s.
Air-to-Air capability is provided through the carriage of AIM-9 and similar passive homing/IR AAMs. The Machete is capable of LANTIRN, LITENING and ECM pod carriage and employs a MIL-STD-1760 Weapon Interface Data Bus. Weapons release is conducted through a control column gun trigger switch and weapon release button for air-to-air/air-to-ground. An abridged SM-28 stores loading chart is provided:
The SM-28 has an Open System Architecture (OSA) with avionics and sensors integrated about a MIL-STD-1553B Interface/Data Bus. Featuring a comprehensive avionics and sensors suite, the philosophy driving the SM-28 avionics configuration focuses upon capability, reliability, flexibility and ease of serviceability. Incorporating both avionics designed or modified to meet specific Machete needs as well as proven Military or Commercial Off-The-Shelf systems (MOTS/COTS), the SM-28 offers maximum flexibility to meet specific customer vehicle purpose and mission needs.
Standard core SM-28 avionics include the Power-By-Wire (PBW) Flight Control System, Air Data Computer, Flight Management System, Avionics Management System, Automatic Flight Direction System, Instrument Landing System, Secure Data Link, Voice/Data Recorder and emergency power supply.
Building upon the core avionics, to address specific customer needs the SM-28 will be offered with a variety of avionics configurations including a Basic configuration, a Special configuration, a Super configuration and a Deluxe configuration and optional variants thereof. In the Basic configuration, aircraft avionics and sensors are optimized to provide the most cost effective CAS solution while providing the same basic capabilities as A-10, A-4, A-37 and Su-25 aircraft. In the Deluxe configuration, the SM-28 features AESA radar, comprehensive IFF and other systems for enhanced mission performance. A Sensor & Avionics summary table for the Basic and Deluxe SM-28 configurations with Deluxe options is provided:
|AVIONICS SYSTEM||BASIC||DELUXE OPTION I||DELUXE OPTION II|
|Multi-Mode Radar||None||Vixen 500E AESA||AN/APG-67(V4)|
|VHF/UHF COMM||AN/ARC-210(V)||AN/ARC-210(V)||AN/ARC-232(V) Starblazer|
|Digital Data Link (Link 16)||AN/URC-138||AN/URC-138||AN/URC-138|
|Digital Anti-Jam Receiver||DAR GPS Digital||DAR GPS Digital||DAR GPS Digital|
|Secure Voice System||TSEC/KY-58||TSEC/KY-58||TSEC/KY-58|
|Intercom System Control||A301-412||A301-412||A301-412|
|INS/GPS||LN 260||LN 260||H-764G|
|ADF||KR 87||KR 87||ADF-462/4000|
|Mission Computer||AMC-TBD||3000 AMC||AN/AYQ-25(V)|
|Avionics Management System||AMS-TBD||CMA-2082M||CMA-2082M|
|Stores Management System||SMS-TBD||SMS-TBD||GD AIS SMS|
|Flight Control System||4 Channel PBW||4 Channel PBW||4 Channel PBW|
|Automatic Flight Direction System||Digital Autopilot||Digital Autopilot||Digital Autopilot|
|Instrument Landing System||ILS-TBD||ILS-TBD||ILS-TBD|
|Head Up Display (HUD)||Canopy Embedded Display||Canopy Embedded Display||Night Hawk or VSI HMDS|
|Display Processor||TBD||TBD||FV4000 MMDP|
|Forward Primary Display||AD189 20 x 9.5 in||AD189 20 x 9.5 in||LAAD 20 x 8 in|
|Forward Center Display||AD44 6 x 7.5 in||AD44 6 x 7.5 in||104P 6 x 8 in|
|Forward Secondary Displays||AD40 6 x 7 in||AD40 6 x 7 in||104P 6 x 8 in|
|Aft Primary Display||AD329 20.5 x 16.5 in||AD329 20.5 x 16.5 in||LAAD 20 x 8 in|
|Aft Center Display||AD43 6 x 7.3 in||AD43 6 x 7.3 in||104P 6 x 8 in|
|Aft Secondary Upper Displays||AD32 6.75 x 5 in||AD32 6.75 x 5 in||104P 6 x 8 in|
|Aft Secondary Lower Displays||AD46 6.75 x 6.8 in||AD46 6.75 x 6.8 in||104P 6 x 8 in|
|Cockpit Voice/Data Recorder||FA2100||FA2100||FA2100|
|Emergency Power Supply||PS-855/B||PS-855/B||PS-855/B|
Avionics listed in the above summary are identified by system designation or description rather than manufacturer. Many of the avionic systems identified in the above table have been produced under contract by a variety of different manufacturers over the course of their production life, hence avionics are cited by designation rather than specific producer. Avionics that may be provided by multiple vendors, or for whom a specific vendor has not yet been selected as the Stavatti vendor of choice, are identified as TBD rather than by a specific system designation.
Avionics configurations significantly impact the flyaway cost of individual aircraft. The typical flyaway cost of an SM-28S equipped with Basic sensors and avionics is approximately $20 Million. A fully equipped Deluxe SM-28S with Vixen 500E or AN/APG-67 radar, integrated IFF and a comprehensive electronic countermeasures suite may have a flyaway cost of $25 Million or more. Potential SM-28 customers are encouraged to discuss CAS mission needs with Stavatti to arrive at their optimal Machete configuration.
Stavatti is spearheading the design and development of proprietary next generation avionics and sensors to equip the Machete family as well as other future Stavatti military aircraft. Optimized for Machete mission requirements, these new avionic systems will be tested, certified, qualified and introduced into Stavatti airframes over various aircraft production blocks as the systems enter production. One of the first avionic product lines introduced by Stavatti is a proprietary line of cockpit display systems including the Canopy Embedded Display (CED) and Advanced Multi-functional Liquid Crystal Displays (ADs) which offer a significant increase in the available surface area of tactical displays over alternative displays. Additional information regarding these new display systems is provided within the cockpit summary.
For expanded mission capability, the Machete may be equipped with a variety of cost plus optional Electro-Optical Sensors including both airframe mounted sensors as well as externally mounted sensor pod solutions. Electro-Optical targeting systems, including the Lockheed Martin Electro-Optical Targeting System (EOTS) as developed for the F/A-35, providing both forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and infrared search and track (IRST) functionality may be incorporated directly into the aircraft nose section. Spherical externally mounted EO sensor systems, including the Raytheon Multi-Spectral Targeting System (MTS), may be mounted on the SM-28 fuselage belly immediately ahead of the main landing gear. A summary table of possible EO sensor systems is provided:
|EO SENSOR SYSTEM||BASIC||FIRST OPTION||SECOND OPTION|
|Airframe Integrated Sensors||None||AN/AAS-52 MSTS||EOTS|
|Externally Mounted Pod||None||SNIPER||LITENING II|
To realize pilotless and/or autonomous flight capability, the SM-28 OSA will incorporate proprietary avionic systems developed specifically for the Machete family of aircraft that allow the aircraft to be readily converted for unpiloted operations. The Machete series of aircraft may be operated as piloted, remotely piloted or unpiloted autonomous air vehicles with the avionic systems necessary for autonomous flight, including hardware and software, being embedded in the foundation of the aircraft’s Automatic Flight Control System. When operating as a piloted aircraft, this pilotless system will augment piloted flight operations by serving as a manually selected “Safety Pilot” to assist in maintaining positive aircraft control in the event of pilot incapacitation or failure of the pilot to recover the aircraft during a departure scenario.
The cockpit is equipped with a Cockpit Video Recording (CVR) system capable for recording at least 120 minutes of HUD symbology, the external HUD field of view, cockpit LCD MFD symbology and all aircraft communication system audio. The aircraft is also equipped with a crash survivable Flight Data Recorder (FDR) capable of storing the last 90 minutes of flight data for post-crash flight reconstruction. The aircraft is fitted with a Crash Position Indicator (CPI) and a survivable Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB). To reduce electrical system complexity, Data Bus wiring used throughout the system architecture. Halon 1301 will be employed for avionic system fire suppression within sealed avionic bays until a suitable replacement agent is identified and made commercially available.
The Electronic Warfare (EW) Suite of the SM-28 is designed to protect the aircraft from surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles in the high threat environment. Providing defense against both radar guided and infra-red guided missile threats, including MANPADS, the SM-28 employs both internal and external countermeasures Electronic Counter Measures (ECM). The SM-28S/T EW system includes a wide variety of customer selected Radar Warning Receivers, Laser Warning Systems, Self Protection Jammers, Advanced Missile Warning Sensors and Countermeasures Dispensers. To further improve survivability the aircraft may be equipped with external jamming pods as well as towed decoy dispensers.
Like avionics and sensors, the EW suite for the SM-28 is selected by the end user who determines what systems and what decree of protection will be incorporated into the SM-28. Due to the available internal volume of the SM-28, a variety of complex ECM systems may be carried by the aircraft and integrated into its Open System Architecture. As the cost associated with SM-28 EW systems varies from between $1,000,000 to $8,000,0000 for the Basic and the most sophisticated configurations, end users must ultimately determine what degree of EW is appropriate for them.
The standard SM-28 EW suite begins with 14 AN/ALE-47 Chaff/Flare dispensers including three dispensers on each wing-tip and four ventral mounted dispensers on each of the aircraft’s empennage support booms. These dispensers are controlled using a flight grip toggle switch that is keyed into a MFD display menu. Additional Chaff/Flare dispensers may be incorporated into the aircraft’s support booms and fuselage as desired. In addition to the AN/ALE-47, all SM-28s may carry one or more AN/ALE-50 towed decoys, mounted at either the end of the empennage booms or at the back end of external stores pylons. Looking beyond the countermeasure and decoy dispensers, the EW suit of the SM-28 varies by individual configuration as elected by customer. A table summarizing SM-28 EW Systems for Basic and Optional Deluxe configurations is provided:
|ELECTRONIC WARFARE SYSTEM||BASIC||DELUXE OPTION I||DELUXE OPTION II|
|Countermeasures Warning and Control Set||AN/ALQ-TBD||AN/ALQ-67(V)3||AN/ALQ-211(V)4 AIDEWS|
|Radar Warning Receiver||AN/ALQ-TBD||AN/ALR-93(V)||AN/ALR-56M|
|Missile Approach Warning System||AN/AAR-TBD||AN/AAR-58||AN/AAR-54(V)|
|Laser Warning System||LWS-TBD||LWS-20V-2||LWS-TBD|
|Airborne Self Protection Jammer||None||AN/ALQ-165||AN/ALQ-TBD|
|Countermeasures Dispensing Set||AN/ALE-47||AN/ALE-47||AN/ALE-47|
Reviewing the above table it is evident that the Basic SM-28 features an austere ECM system. To ensure aircraft survivability in a high threat environment while maintaining affordability, Stavatti is working with industry team members to develop and field a proprietary, affordable, austere integrated ECM system with RWR for warning and EW control that can be included in the Basic SM-28 Machete configuration. Stavatti is also investigating the in-house development and production of affordable LWR, MAW and a novel Generated Intense Magnetic Pulse Airborne Self-Protection Jammer that may be offered on the basic SM-28 turbofan Machete models while maintaining a flyaway cost of $20 Million for single seat variants.
Conversely, the Deluxe SM-28 features a very comprehensive EW suite that draws directly from the expertise of established contractors. Offering many of the same EW systems found in either the F/A-18E or the F-16C, the SM-28 is one of few aircraft in its class that has sufficient internal volume to carry complex Airborne Self-Protection Jammers including the AN/ALQ-165. Employing proven, MOTS and COTS, the Deluxe SM-28 EW solution will deliver known levels of survivability with no threat being a surprise. Providing F/A-18E level capability in a CAS aircraft, the Deluxe SM-28 will be suitable for all-weather, day and night operations in adverse high threat theaters.
The cockpit is available in two configurations: the single seat SM-28S and the two seat tandem SM-28T. Each configuration is designed for reduced workload operations with crewmembers seated on reclined Martin Baker MKUS.16L zero-zero ejection seats. Both Machete models incorporate auto-eject and auto-eject sequencing. The cockpit is pressurized to 8,000 ft and is heated/air-conditioned to enable heating/cooling the aircraft cockpit and avionics bays within outside operational temperature limit range of -55°C to 55°C with solar gain. Crew oxygen is provided by a Cobham OC1132 Molecular Sieve Oxygen Generating System (MSOGS).
The cockpit for SM-28 is a modular unit, produced as a unitized, self contained system external to the fuselage that interfaces with the aircraft through long-life electronic and mechanical connectors. Known as Armored Cockpit Modules (ACMs), the cockpits are interchangeable between aircraft models, allowing individual aircraft to be converted to single seat (SM-28S) or two place (SM-28T) variants as desired. Incorporating distinct, armored and EM hardened quick interconnects for flight controls, electrical junctions, avionics buses and environmental control, the Machete cockpit is installed and extracted vertically in the absence of the bubble canopy. The ACMs attach to the fuselage structure through bolts with vibration damping fittings.
The ACM is a titanium foam metal sandwich structure consisting of a titanium foam sandwiched between titanium armor plates. A laser welded structure designed to provide a level of cockpit protection equal or greater than that of the A-10’s titanium “bath tub,” the ACM features a Spectra® fiber composite interior liner to significantly mitigates the penetrative effects of projectiles and spall. The ACM for the single seat SM-28S weighs approximately 533 lbs while the aft ACM for the two seat SM-28T has a unit weight of 459 lbs for a total combined SM-28T ACM weight of 992 lbs. The cockpit interiors are furnished with aluminum foam metal sandwich consoles, an instrument panel and a panel hood. The panel hood is removable for immediate access to instrument panel avionics and displays while consoles are removable for ease of control panel replacement, update and exchange.
The aircraft bubble canopy is of large area, frame-less, single-piece clamshell type. The canopy is of advanced bullet resistant polycarbonate composition and can safely sustain the impact of a 4 lb bird at airspeeds exceeding 450 kts from any attitude. Visibility is 350° with 13° over-the-nose and 25° over-the-side. The canopy is lifted upward for cockpit access by an electrohydrostatic actuator. The canopy is defrosted and purged of precipitation using a perimeter high pressure, hot air system tied into the cabin heating and air conditioning system. An internally mounted, manual unlatch and hand-crank is provided.
All Machete variants benefit from a HOTAS flight controls arrangement consisting of a right hand/starboard mounted Flight Control Grip (F-16 derivative) right console mounted flight control column, full deflection rudder pedals, power control lever (F-16 Grip Derivative). Flight and throttle grips are provided by Esterline (Mason Electric) and are based upon current production articles for the F-16 Block 50+ to reduce tooling complexity. HOTAS provides toggles for aircraft flaps, speedbrake, propeller pitch, trim, sensors, weapons release, microphone, etc. Rudder pedals are fully adjustable. Dual flight controls are provided in two-seat variants. All flight controls, displays, instruments, system controls and circuit breakers are accessible from forward and aft crewstations by crew members with crew seat restraints fastened.
SM-28 cockpits may feature either new design Stavatti proprietary display systems or off-the-shelf display systems. New design Stavatti display systems include a Canopy Embedded Display and Stavatti touch screen Active Displays (AD). The Canopy Embedded Display (CED) is a new Head Up Display (HUD) technology that replaces conventional aircraft HUDs as well as Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs). The Stavatti CED benefits from pioneering consumer electronics research in the field of transparent, curved LED displays, including Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs).
Applying this technology to aircraft canopies under license from a specific industry partner, the inside of the canopy is layered with a transparent thin film LED which serves as the aircraft’s HUD. Providing active visual situational awareness, the CED allows much of the aircraft’s canopy surface to serve as a large, wrap-around, transparent display suitable for displaying both menus and traditional HUD symbology as generated by the aircraft’s multi-functional display processors. In addition to projecting HUD symbology, the CED provides visual cuing locations for radar/sensor targets that are yet visually out-of range while providing both situational awareness and heading cuing for navigational purposes. Also enabling the dimming or blacking-out of the canopy in whole or in part, the CED mitigates solar glare effects, reduces cabin temperature and can provide microsecond dimming to protect pilot vision during nuclear blasts. Serving as a primary visual flight reference display, the CED will deliver greater situational awareness than either traditional HUDs or HMDS at a significantly lower cost. The SM-28 will be equipped with the CED as standard equipment within 36 months of prototype first flight.
Stavatti touch screen Active Displays (AD) are next generation lightweight LED Multi-Functional Displays of unique trapezoidal configuration. A ruggedized display system engineered to MIL SPEC for operation in extreme environments and under high accelerations, this display technology allows for the production of non-rectangular, large format, cost competitive displays for both military and civil aircraft. Enabling next generation, all glass cockpits, Stavatti’s Active Displays will be produced by a leading military and consumer electronics industry team member for exclusive use in future Stavatti cockpits. Coinciding with the introduction of the CED, SM-28 cockpits will feature these Active Displays as standard equipment within 36 months of prototype first flight.
Serving as an off-the-shelf alternative to new Stavatti cockpit display technologies, the SM-28 may be equipped with a Esterline Night Hawk wide field-of-view HUD and HUD repeater system as the primary visual flight reference display system. Alternatively, a VSI Integrated HMDS may be used as an alternative to the HUD for the forward crew station. Aircraft equipped with the Night Hawk HUD will employ five L3 Communications Actiview 104P 6 x 8 in LCDs in the forward crew station as secondary flight reference instruments. Aircraft featuring the HMDS will offer two Actiview 104P 6 x 8 displays and one L3 LAAD 20 x 8 display. The aft crewstation of the SM-28T will feature one L3 LAAD 20 x 8 as a primary MFD and three Actiview 104P 6 x 8 displays as secondary displays.
All SM-28 cockpits will be IFR certified and designed for Generation III night vision compliance and Helmet Mounted Cuing Systems/Integrated Helmet and Display Sighting Systems (HMCS/IHDSS). Forward and rear panels are complemented by a comprehensive warning annunciation system, integrated air conditioning/heater vents and standby control interfaces.
Layout drawings of the SM-28S/T forward and aft crewstations featuring Stavatti display solutions are provided. Layout drawings of cockpits featuring off-the-shelf Night Hawk HUD and L3 Display Systems are available upon request.
The SM-28 will be an all-metal aircraft featuring semi-monocoque foam metal sandwich construction. Benefiting from a variety of advanced alloys as well as metal forming and joining techniques, the Machete is re-inventing how airplanes are built. As a semi-monocoque aircraft, the SM-28 has external foam metal sandwich skins that are supported by an internal structure of frames, bulkheads, longerons, spars and ribs made from high performance titanium and aluminum lithium alloys. Employing a minimal number of rivets or screw fasteners, the SM-28 is built from sandwich skins that are welded to titanium bulkheads, frames, spars and ribs using Laser or Friction Stir Welding (FSW) techniques.
Conceptually similar to aluminum honeycomb sandwich, the foam metal sandwich approach substitutes aluminum honeycomb with a low density metal foam in which a foam metal core is sandwiched between two metal sheets. The foamed metal core will be either titanium foam or aluminum-lithium foam, with face sheets being either aluminum-lithium or titanium. The foam itself will be of either open and closed cell type, depending upon component purpose and application. Offering significant improvements over traditional semi-monocoque stressed skin aircraft construction, the foam metal sandwich approach builds upon the known advantages of Honeycomb Sandwich structures by adding a high degree of omni-directional strength as well as substantial tolerance to ballistic impacts. Recalling the weight saving and cost reducing benefits of full depth Honeycomb sandwich construction cited by F.A. Figge and L. Bernhardt, the Machete’s use of foam metal structures results in aircraft structures that are inherently stronger, stiffer, lighter and more affordable to produce.
The closed cell metal foam sandwich structure has an excellent stiffness-to-weight ratio, a greater strength-to-weight ratio than traditional structures and lower thermal conductivity with a high degree of fire resistance. The sandwich construction results in a structure that offers high degree of sound and vibration dampening as well as high impact resistance, fatigue cycle tolerance and superior survivability. Moreover, the closed cell foam structure is conducive to a smooth, low-drag skin-surface that can be produced quickly at a low cost and lower parts count. A new material manufactured by proven and qualified by companies including Fraunhaufer IWU of Chemnitz, Germany, today there are many qualified manufacturers that are producing foam metal sandwich structures for aerospace, defense, automotive, and other applications. Stavatti will be building upon these successes to standardize and qualify a proprietary approach toward the production of foam metal sandwich structures for FAA certified and DoD qualified aircraft.
The foam metal sandwich approach will feature skins which are 0.032 to 0.25 in thick separated by a low density foamed metal core measuring as thin as 0.5 to 1.0 in to thicknesses over 9 in for full depth wing structures. The foamed metal core is metallurgically bonded to the metal face sheets on a molecular level. This metallurgical bonding is the result of the in-situ bonded proprietary manufacturing approach whereby the core is foamed between solid face sheets, allowing the foam to fuse and form a molecular bond. The face sheets will use 100% density material while the lower density foam core will have a range of material density from 3% to 10% with an average density of 8%, depending on airframe structural component.
This foam metal sandwich technology has been utilized by the aerospace industry for over two decades in a variety of applications. Stavatti perceives this technology as a break-through that not only increases aircraft structural integrity but allows significant reductions in airframe fabrication time and cost. Significantly reducing the cost of titanium components this technology will enable the production of all metal aircraft which significantly eclipse any benefit from the use of fiber composites or other materials. Having briefed both the Air Force Research Laboratories (AFRL) and NAVAIR on the foam metal sandwich technology in 2014, Stavatti will qualify both aluminum-lithium and titanium foam metal sandwich structures for military and civil aircraft applications through these organizations as part of the comprehensive SM-28 military qualification process.
To reduce initial development costs, SM-28 demonstrator aircraft may feature aluminum and titanium honeycomb sandwich structures as an off-the-shelf substitute for foam metal sandwich skins. These honeycomb sandwich skins would be produced by an industry team member such as Hexcel and fastened by welding or mechanical fasteners to airframe bulkheads, frames, longerons, spars and ribs. These alloy sandwich panels could be used as direct substitutes to foam metal sandwich panels with characteristics that have been well demonstrated. While production aircraft will feature foam metal cores, use of honeycomb cores in prototype aircraft will expedite the development program. Due to their omni-directional strength, superior impact resistance, survivability and their possible use as pressurized fuel tanks, however, foam metal structures are the desired core material for the SM-28.
To form foam metal and honeycomb sandwich structures, as well as aircraft sheetmetal into precision contoured fuselage, wing, canard and tail skins, Stavatti will use a combination of aircraft metal forming techniques including laserforming, hydroforming, stretchforming and explosive hydroforming. Specific forming techniques are selected based upon part production quality, production run volume and overall cost. Titanium components are produced using laser forming, laser machining and traditional aerospace titanium part production methodologies. Sandwich structures are either provided to Stavatti as pre-formed components by industry team members or formed in-house. Specific components may be formed prior to creation of sandwich structure wherein motel metal is foamed and cooled to result in a molecularly bonded, foam metal sandwich part. Low radius of curvature parts, including wing and tail skins will likely be stretch formed or stretch formed using laser assistance and then welded to a laser formed foam sandwich. Thick wing and tail structures may be machined from sheet stock to a desired thickness and machined configuration. Aircraft landing gear may also benefit from titanium foam metal construction to reduce component weight. While specific airframe hardware and components may consist of machined aluminum-lithium, titanium and stainless steel, most of the external aircraft surface area will consist of aluminum-lithium and titanium foam metal sandwich structure.
Beneath the sandwich skins is a spaceframe substructure. Fuselage skins are supported by frames and bulkheads tied together by longerons while lifting structures feature a substructure of spars and ribs. Fuselage longerons are foam metal sandwich structures of formed thin wall rectangular section titanium or aluminum-lithium tubes with aluminum foam cores. Fuselage Bulkheads and frames are machined or built-up laser welded titanium or aluminum lithium structures that are connected as a structural space-frame by the longerons. Spars are of sine-wave design featuring an I-beam section where horizontal caps are supported by a sine-wave web. Wing, tail and canard ribs are of machined or built up laser welded titanium or aluminum-lithium design with eight wing ribs featuring reinforced trunnion ports for securing of external pylon attachment fittings. Structures and components are fastened throughout the aircraft structure through laser welding, Friction Stir Welding, aerospace machine screws, titanium bolts and Huck Ti-Matic rivets as appropriate.
By weight approximately 95.1% of the SM-28 will be alloy, while 0.2% of the aircraft will be composite and 4.7% of the aircraft will be polycarbonate and other materials. Of the total structure, 24.1% will be aluminum-lithium, while 14.9% will be aluminum-lithium foam. 53.7% of the aircraft will be titanium with 2.3% of the aircraft being titanium foam. The principal alloys used in the aircraft’s construction are 2090-T83 aluminum-lithium, 2099-T86 aluminum-lithium, Ti-6Al-4V titanium, Ti-6222 (Ti-6Al-2Zr-2Sn-2Mo-2Cr-0.25Si) titanium, PH 15-7 stainless steel and Ferrium S53. High temperature composites will be used in all bandpass fairings including the radome and conformal antennas. The high temperature composites will employ high temperature resins, including NASA Langley RP46, which can operate for over 10,000 hours at temperatures in excess of 700° F. The fiber materials used in SM-28 composites include a mission specific band pass aramid for use in SM-28 radomes and antenna fairings. To increase aircraft combat survivability and damage tolerance, use of graphite reinforced composites as aircraft skins and primary structures was avoided. A ballistic impact specific formulation of polycarbonate will be used in the aircraft’s canopy. Sharing the same canopy across all Machete series aircraft, the canopy may be injection molded based upon an approach developed at the AFRL for the low cost production of bird-strike resistant bubble canopies.
The SM-28 structure is designed for a service life of 15,000 hours at an annual usage of 350 flight hours for a total lifetime of over 43 years. Aircraft design philosophy has emphasized application of fail-safe design principles with load-path redundancy. Materials used throughout the aircraft exhibit plastic failure modes and maximum resistance to corrosion in all environmental conditions. The aircraft has been designed to a maximum limit load factor of +7.5 g and -3.75 g at a Maximum Takeoff Weight (MTOW) of 36,000 lbs. The maximum limit load factor at Typical Takeoff Weight is is +9.0 g and -4.5 g. The maximum limit load factor at Typical Combat Weight is is +10.0 g and -5.0 g. For all gross weights, the aircraft’s Ultimate load factor is 1.5 times limit load factors.
The Machete fuselage is a modular, four section structure composed of a nose, center fuselage, aft fuselage and ventral fuselage cannon fairing. All four fuselage modules feature a built-up metal space-frame substructure of frames, bulkheads and longerons with exterior foam metal sandwich skins. Skins are smooth for reduced skin friction drag. Exterior mechanical fasteners are used only for the attachment of removable access panels. Fuselage modules are connected by titanium bolts with quick electrical connectors to allow removal and replacement of modules in the event of significant damage or failure.
The nose module is 10 ft long with a 7 ft long integrated alloy structure and 3 ft long bandpass composite radome. The radome hinges to the port for radar/avionics access. The nose module contains the aircraft nose landing gear and gear bay, primary radar and sensor bay, primary avionics bay and retractable in-flight refueling probe. The nose module is insulated, heated and air conditioned to ensure optimal climatic conditions for avionics and sensors. The nose module provides three port, three starboard and one dorsal removable panel for access to aircraft avionics. The nose module structure weighs 308 lbs and has four aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich longerons, two aluminum-lithium bulkheads, one titanium bulkhead, six aluminum-lithium frames and aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich exterior skins.
The center fuselage module is a 13 ft 4 in long and incorporates the 12 ft 4 in long single-piece polycarbonate bubble canopy. The center fuselage houses the crewstation and integrated Armored Cockpit Module (ACM), the secondary aircraft avionics bay, electronic warfare systems bay, aircraft OBOGS, 30mm cannon structural interface elements (including bulkheads and fairing interface frames) 30mm ammunition magazine and ammunition feed and handling systems. The center fuselage has three port and three starboard access panels as well as emergency canopy jettison panels and ground power connection panel. The center fuselage features a retractable, aluminum port fuselage air-stair for crew access as well as a canopy open/close actuation panel. The center fuselage also serves as the interface for the aircraft’s pitot air inlets which are mounted externally to the center fuselage consisting primarily of a foam metal sandwich structure with a bulkhead back-plate.
The center fuselage is largely identical for both single seat (S) and two seat tandem (T) aircraft differing only magazine decking skin. The center fuselage contains six bays for installation of avionics, sensors and EW systems. The center fuselage also contains one fuel tank as well as space for up to two optional extended range tanks. The center fuselage module weighs 1,107 lbs for (S) models and 1,085 lbs for (T) models. The center fuselage has six aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich longerons, eleven titanium bulkheads, twelve aluminum-lithium frames and aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich exterior skins. In addition to providing the spaceframe structure for skin attachment, the bulkheads and frames serve as attachments for canard foreplanes, ACMs and ammunition magazines as well as the 30mm gun system. The ventral cannon fairing, containing the 30mm GAU-13/A cannon is integrated directly into the structure of the center fuselage.
The aft fuselage module is 14 ft 1 in long with a 5 ft 9 in long ventral cowling for powerplant access. The aft fuselage houses the aircraft F414 powerplant, powerplant engine mount, engine air inlet, engine support systems including battery, APU and self-start equipment, electronic warfare systems, aircraft OBIGGs and the fuselage fuel tanks. Titanium, Kevlar® and Spectra® laminate discrete armor is featured throughout the aft fuselage to enhance powerplant and fuel tank survivability. The aft fuselage serves as the structural interface for the aircraft wings which are bolted to three aft fuselage primary load-bearing bulkheads with spar fittings. The aft fuselage also houses the main landing gear wheels and tires upon retraction and the ventral speedbrake.
The aft fuselage weighs 1,150 lbs and is composed of ten aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich longerons, nine titanium bulkheads and frames including three titanium wing spar attachment bulkheads, three titanium bulkheads with integral engine mounts, nine aluminum-lithium frames, one aluminum-lithium landing gear bay keel bulkhead and aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich skins. Titanium foam metal sandwich skins may be used in high temperature regions. The ventral speed-brake is an aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich structure with an electromechanical actuator attached to a stressed skin speed-brake bay reinforced with six I-section aluminum-lithium stringers.
Each fuselage module is an independent, integrated unit that contain all necessary control linkages, control systems, electrical wiring and harnesses, fuel lines specific to the module as integrated systems, interfacing with the other modules through reusable connectors. Designed for mission expansion, the fuselage offers significant unpopulated volume for future avionics, sensor and electronic warfare systems growth. The alloy spaceframe is a laser welded and built-up structure which serves as a rigid chassis for the integration of all alloy frames, primary bulkheads, mounts and the firewall. All fuselage contained systems, including avionics, electrical, armament hydraulic and the ACM, are secured to spaceframe integrated alloy mounts. The spaceframe is skinned in an alloy film to ensure all sensitive avionic and electrical systems are protected to applicable TEMPEST requirements.
SM-28 wings are of high aspect ratio, low-wing, cantilever type. Wing leading edge sweep is 5° and trailing edge sweep is -5°. Wing span, excluding wingtip dispensers and winglets is 51 ft 0 in. Overall wingspan is 53 ft 0 in over wingtip dispensers. Reference wing area is 312.35 sq ft. Wing aspect ratio is 8.33. The wing airfoil is a modified NACA 65(2)-415 throughout the span. To alleviate the negative affects of tip stall, the Machete wing employs approximately 2° washout. Wing incidence is 0°. Wing dihedral, from root, is 0°. The wing is 71.4% titanium, 10.1% aluminum lithium and 18.5% aluminum-lithium foam by weight. Each wing weighs 1,266 lbs for a total wing weight of 2,532 lbs.
The SM-28 wing is composed of a port and a starboard wing. Each wing is mounted to the aircraft fuselage by spar attachment fittings that bolt to fuselage bulkheads. Wings may be removed from fuselage for transport, repair or replacement. Each individual wing features two segments including an inboard section and an outboard section. Each inboard wing section has a leading edge sweep of 21.6° degrees and features a single trailing edge flapperon/elevon. Each outboard wing section has a leading edge sweep of 5° A modular design, alternate wing configurations, including wings of increased span for superior high altitude loiter, may be quickly fitted to the aircraft. The outboard wings may also feature a folding wing section with a hinge break between the flap and aileron gap to enable storage on USN carriers.
Each wing has three titanium sine wave spars which form the basis of a rigid titanium carry-through box. This carry-through box serves as mount and housing for the main landing gear. The carry-through box is also the principal mount for port and starboard titanium monocoque empennage support booms which serve as the structural interface for the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. Each wing has fourteen titanium ribs including five inboard ribs and nine outboard ribs. Eight of the ribs feature external hardpoint trunnion mounting fittings. Wings feature full-depth aluminum-lithium foam metal cores as well as full-depth titanium foam metal fuel cell cores. The fuel cell cores are porous, open cell titanium foam metal cores that serve as integral fuel tanks. These foam metal fuel tanks aid in reducing the chance of fuel ignition or explosion and allow for pressurization with inert gas. Wing foam core fuel tanks have a total capacity of 124 US gallons per wing. Each wing features milled titanium skins that are laser welded to the spar and rib substructure and molecularly bonded to the foam core. All wing structures and components are either fastened by computer directed laser welding or by titanium screws and bolts. A foam metal sandwich structure, SM-28 wings are stronger, stiffer and lighter than conventional semi-monocoque wings.
Each wing section is equipped with 0.25c ailerons for roll control and 43% span 0.301c double slotted, trailing edge Fowler flaps. Ailerons are equipped with electric trim-tabs. The inboard wing center section is also equipped with a trailing edge elevon which may function as an elevator, aileron or plain flap to enhance pitch, roll or low speed control. Each wing section is also equipped with leading edge slat for enhanced low speed/high AoA performance. The slat is split at the aileron junction located at the 70% span. The split slats may be deployed deferentially allowing the ailerons to receive accelerated flow to prolong the onset of tip stall. The split slats also enable the folding of outboard wing sections for carrier stowage. Each wing also features two independent spoiler/speed-brakes for roll control and deceleration. Ailerons, flaps, slats, spoilers and speed-brakes are of aluminum foam metal sandwich construction. Wingtips are equipped with a streamlined tip fairing housing three chaff/flare dispensers and a winglet.
Wings are equipped with an Electro-Expulsive Separation System (EESS) for in-flight deicing. Wings have eight external hardpoints, with three hardpoints located on each outer wing section and two canted hardpoints located on the wing center section fitted directly to the empennage support boom. The two center section hardpoints are rated to 2,000 lbs at +7.5g. The four outer section hardpoints are each rated to 2,500 lbs at +7.5g. The two remaining outer wing hardpoints are rated to 1,000 lbs at +7.5g. Four hardpoints are plumbed for external fuel tanks. Standard external tanks include the Cobham (Sargent Fletcher) #401315 150 USG Tank and the Cobham #74A551200-1001 330 USG Tank.
The aircraft canard foreplanes are fixed, close-coupled cantilever type. Canards enhance aircraft low speed handling, maneuvering and short field performance through the generation of high energy vortices. The canards are of lifting type, adding to aircraft gross wing area. Leading edge canard sweep is 36° and trailing edge sweep is 19°. Canard dihedral is 3°. Canard unit span is 6 ft 0 in. Total canard area and aspect ratio is 36.37 sq ft and 4.03 respectively. Canard mean airfoil is a NACA 65-209 section.
The canards are of all-metal construction with an individual unit weight of 74 lbs for a total canard weight of 148 lbs. The canards feature two sine wave aluminum-lithium spars, full-depth aluminum-lithium foam metal cores and aluminum-lithium skins. The canards have trailing edge flapperons of aluminum-lithium foam metal sandwich construction that operate collectively with the all moving horizontal stabilizer to enhance pitch rate or differentially when the aircraft is functioning as a Control Configured Vehicle.
Canard construction consists of two Ti-6222 spars, seven Titanium ribs and Titanium skins. Canards benefit from laser formed components which are laser welded to form a smooth, high tolerance finish. Canards incorporate flaperons of Aluminum construction which operate collectively with the all moving horizontal stabilizer to enhance pitch rate.
The SM-28 empennage consists of twin all-moving, mass balanced horizontal stabilizer for longitudinal stability and pitch control and twin vertical stabilizers. The empennage is close-coupled to the aircraft wing to improve instantaneous maneuverability and reduce aircraft physical dimensions. The empennage is attached through wing mounted support booms. The empennage is equipped with in-flight deicing.
The SM-28 horizontal stabilizer has a trapezoidal planform with a leading edge sweep of 34° and trailing edge sweep of 10.3°. Horizontal tail unit span is 10 ft. Horizontal tail unit area is 35.75 sq ft. Total horizontal tail area and aspect ratio is 71.5 sq ft and 2.79 respectively. Horizontal tail mean airfoil is a modified NACA 0009 section. Each individual horizontal stabilizer weighs 153.5 lbs for a total horizontal tail weight of 307 lbs. The horizontal tail is of all metal construction with 59% being aluminum-lithium and 41% being aluminum lithium foam metal. The horizontal stabilizer has five aluminum-lithium primary spars, four aluminum-lithium secondary spars, four aluminum-lithium ribs and a foam metal sandwich structure including aluminum-lithium skins molecularly bonded to in-situ formed full-depth aluminum-lithium foam metal cores. The horizontal tails can be deflected collectively for pitch control or differentially for role control with a maximum deflection angle of +/- 40°.
The SM-28 vertical stabilizer consists of two independent units of trapezoidal planform with dorsal fairings. Vertical stabilizer leading edge sweep is 40°and trailing edge sweep is 9°. With an overall span of 6 ft 5 in, each vertical tail has 32.44 sq ft of area including the dorsal fin. Vertical tail reference area is 28.21 sq ft with a corresponding aspect ratio of 1.49. Total aircraft vertical stabilizer reference area is 56.42 sq ft. With a dihedral angle of 90º, the vertical stabilizer’s mean airfoil is a modified NACA 0009. Each vertical stabilizer assembly has a weight of 157.5 lbs including rudder for a total aircraft vertical tail weight of 315 lbs. The vertical tail is 70% aluminum-lithium, 27% aluminum-lithium foam metal and 3% Kevlar composite. The vertical tail has three aluminum-lithium spars, one aluminum-lithium false spar, nine aluminum-lithium ribs, full-depth aluminum-lithium foam cores and aluminum-lithium skins. Each vertical stabilizer features an aluminum rudder with aluminum-lithium skins and a full-depth aluminum-lithium foam metal core. Rudders incorporate trim tabs and are capable of deflection angles of +/- 35°. The tip of each vertical tail has a Kevlar® composite antenna fairing for vertical tail mounted antennas, EW and RWR.
The SM-28 has twin empennage support booms each located 72 inches from the aircraft centerline. With a length of 15 ft 6 in, a typical width of 14.25 in and a typical height of 14.0 in, each individual support boom serves as a mounting point for one vertical stabilizer, one horizontal stabilizer unit and one ventral fin. Each support boom weighs 237.8 lbs and is composed of 86% titanium and 14% titanium foam metal.
Total weight of all aircraft support booms is 475 lbs. Each support boom is composed of a titanium foam metal sandwich skin that is supported internally by twenty-three titanium frames and one titanium horizontal stabilizer trunnion yoke. Each support boom also features one external hardpoint mounting trunnion with each individual boom serving as the mounting point for one canted external stores pylon. Each support boom is typically fitted with four ventrally mounted AN/ALE-47 countermeasures dispensers for a total of eight aircraft dispensers. The support booms may be modified to serve as interfaces for electro-optical sensors as well as towed decoy dispensers. A tail light may be mounted to the end of the right support boom.
The aircraft fuel system is composed of nine rigid fuel tanks and one feeder tank. Five of the fuel tanks are located within the fuselage, while the remaining four tanks are located within the port and starboard wing respectively. For increased survivability the fuel tanks are pressurized with a Cobham NC1029 OBIGGS. The maximum useful internal fuel load is 923 US gallons equivalent to 6,000 lbs of JP-4, 6,277 lbs of JP-5 and 6,185 lbs of JP-8 at standard conditions. SM-28 fuel tanks are sized for a maximum capacity of 925 useable gallons of JP-4, plus any volume necessary for fuel tank self-sealing features. Unusable internal fuel is approximately 60 lbs.
Fuselage fuel tanks are of rigid, titanium type fitted lined with open cell reticulated foam as secondary survivability protection in addition to the OBIGGS. Wing fuel tanks are of open cell titanium foam metal type and serve as both a structural core as well as a sealed fuel cell. The inboard wing fuel tanks feature a single cell while the outboard wing tank consists of ten cells as defined by spars and ribs. A single point refueling interface is located on the port fuselage, while gravity refueling may be accomplished through three filler locations including one on each wing and a single fuselage point. A fuel quantities and tank arrangement diagram is provided:
A probe-and drogue in-flight refueling system is located in the aircraft nose. The refueling probe for the in-flight refueling system is of retractable type based upon technologies developed by Cobham (Sargent Fletcher) in their ART/S Aerial Refueling Tank System. The retractable refueling probe system will likely be produced by Cobham. A flying-boom style Universal Aerial Refueling Receptacle Slipaway Installation (UARRSI) may be mounted on the centerline dorsal fuselage aft of the cockpit to enable KC-135/KC-46 in-flight refueling.
To extend aircraft range four wing hardpoints are plumbed for external fuel tanks. The SM-28 may carry up to four Cobham (Sargent Fletcher) P/N 401315 external fuel tanks with a maximum capacity of 150 USG for up to 4,020 lbs of additional JP-8 Fuel. The Cobham 330 USG external tank, P/N 74A551200-1001 may also be carried.
SM-28 Aircraft Systems include flight controls, electromechanical systems, electrohydrostatic systems, hydraulic systems and the electrical system.
The SM-28 flight control system is a full-authority, Digital Power-By-Wire (PBW) flight control system. The PBW system features self-contained electrohydrostatic primary flight control actuators (EHAs), electromechanical actuators (EMAs) and electrically driven power drive units (PDUs). EHAs and EMAs are developed and produced by leading industry team members including Moog, Parker Aerospace and Beaver Aerospace. EHAs and EMAs position and actuate the aircraft’s ailerons, slats, rudders, stabilators, elevons, canopy, air stair, landing gear, landing gear doors, in-flight refueling doors, speedbrake and 30mm cannon system.
SM-28 EHAs enable flight control and systems actuation without the need for a central hydraulic system, resulting in reduced aircraft weight, more efficient power consumption and improved aircraft maintainability. The EHAs consist of an integral fixed displacement reversible high speed pumps driven by a brushless electric motors. The EHAs are dual tandem designs with simplex hydraulic output that incorporate both fail-safe features and overload protection. The EHAs have operating pressures up to 5,000 psi with an electrical output range of 270 Vdc or 115 VAC with a transformer rectifier.
The SM-28 EMAs include both linear and rotary electromechanical actuators that utilize a ball or Acme screw driven by brushless electric motors through a torque sum gear train. The EMAs my have a skewed roller or a fail-safe electromechanical brake. Linear or rotary variable differential transformers determine position of flight control surfaces actuated by the EMA. In the event of primary load path failure, the EMA’s primary load path is locked in place and load is transferred to a secondary load path.
The PBW system is quad-redundant, features BIT and benefits from flight control laws that enable variable stability and provide the pilot with maximum flight control authority enabling the aircraft to be fully aerobatic. PBW flight control law software allows the aircraft to perform all standard maneuvers including the stall, slip and spin, enabling full expression of exercises throughout any advanced training syllabus. The PBW architecture interfaces directly with pilotless remote piloted and autonomous flight command systems. Flaperons, rudders and stabilators are internally mass balanced. Stabilators feature electric trim, actuators that are located in the support boom. Flight control surfaces may be deflected in concert or independently to enable unique flight control deflections and resulting aircraft maneuvers as controlled by the aircraft flight control system. Flight crews may pre-program specific maneuvers for precision execution by the aircraft flight control system.
The SM-28 features two independent 4,000 psi (276 bar) hydraulic systems driven by electrically driven pump. Hydraulic systems are interconnected. Hydraulic systems actuate landing gear normal braking, and nose wheel steering. Hydraulic pressure is maintained automatically and is suitable for aerobatics and inverted flight.
The SM-28 electrical system supplies 115 volt, three-phase, 400 cycle AC power and 28 VDC per MILSTD-704D. Four independent sources are used for power generation including a primary switched reluctance starter/generator, a Honeywell 36-150F APU, a RAM air turbine and a battery. AC power is supplied by two static inverters. Power is normally supplied by one inverter with the second serving as a backup. DC power is supplied by one 24 VDC battery. The starter/generator is a combination engine starter and 28 VDC generator. The secondary generator is a 28 VDC generator. The aircraft features an APU to supply DC and 400 Hz power, bleed air/air conditioning and hydraulic pressure. An external 28 VDC ground power connector is provided.
The aircraft is equipped with Cobham OC1132 OBOGS and a NC1029 OBIGGS. The cockpit is pressurized, air conditioned and heated. The aircraft will feature an Electro-Expulsive De-icing System (EEDS) as developed by NASA and produced by IMS-ESS. EEDS is used for wing leading edge, canard leading edge, horizontal stabilizer leading edge and vertical stabilizer leading edge deicing. Electric deicing is used in the pitot tube, static ports, AoA transmitter, stall warning sensor and air intakes. Powerplant bleed air deicing is provided for the canopy and engine inlet. A fire detection and suppression system is provided for the engine, avionics bay and cannon/ammunition bay.
The SM-28 has electromechanically actuated, retractable tricycle landing gear. The landing gear is designed for operations from unprepared, forward locations with sink rates up to 15 ft/s, with a high tolerance to hard landings. Landing gear struts are of SP 700 Titanium and Ferrium S53 construction. Maximum landing gear deployment airspeed is 250 Kts. Machete wheelbase is 16 ft 5 in. Machete wheel track is 12 ft 0 in. Landing gear weight distribution is 15/85 at MTOW. Maximum tip-back angle is 15°.
The main landing gear is of wing mounted, single-strut, oelo-pneumatic, single wheel units featuring hydraulic carbon disk brakes. Main wheels use 25.5 x 8.0-14 size tires including Goodyear 20 ply rib tread with a maximum inflation pressure of 310 psi. The main gear retracts 90°inboard, with wheels stowed in the wing center section carry-through box upon retraction. Retraction is provided by a single self-locking electromechanical actuator. In the event of actuator failure, the gear extends and locks in the extended position. Each main gear strut may feature a single landing light.
The nose landing gear retracts forward and is an oelo-pneumatic, single wheeled unit. The nose wheel uses 19 x 6.75-8 size tires including 10 TL ply, Goodyear Rib tread with a maximum inflation pressure of 110 psi. Nose wheel steering and main gear braking, is provided via rudder pedal inputs. Electromechanically actuated, the nose gear drops and is locked in the extended position in the event of actuator failure. The nose strut features a taxi light that steers with the nose wheel.
Navy SM-28 aircraft may be equipped with nose gear strut catapult tow hooks and a US Navy carrier arresting hook for catapult launches and carrier arresting gear traps respectively. Installation of the carrier arresting hook results in a modification of the ventral speedbrake and speedbrake bay. The arresting hook will be electrohydraulically actuated. Navalized SM-28 aircraft will also feature a Moog developed wingfold actuation system featuring Moog’s advanced spline lock technology.
Significant emphasis has been placed upon ensuring that the SM-28 is highly survivable in a high threat, SAM saturated CAS environment. A major part of achieving that high level of survivability comes from how the airplane is built including its level of intrinsic and discrete armor.
Intrinsic Armor consists of primary aircraft structural elements that not only serve as load-bearing members, but also provide an element of armor protection through their inherent design. A principal example of intrinsic armor is the use of foam metal sandwich construction throughout the aircraft. Over the past two decades, the ballistic protection properties of foam metal sandwich armor have been repeatedly demonstrated. Organizations including NASA, the Aberdeen Proving Ground and North Carolina State University have all shown that foam metal sandwich armor, in particular composite metal foam (CFM) armor provides significant protection against ballistic impact. Offering very high armor to weight ratios, combining metal foams with appropriate strike and backplates results in formerly unheard of levels of protection.
Applying these lessons learned, the Machete airframe benefits from foam metal sandwich skins. Combining titanium and aluminum-lithium foam metals with titanium, aluminum-lithium and a variety of other skin, strikeplate and backplate materials including titanium diboride, alumina-diboride, boron carbide, Kevlar® and Spectra®, allows the Machete to be structurally skinned in a stiff, high strength structure that serves as ballistic armor while also, provides noise, heat, vibration and in some configurations, radiation dampening. In so doing, the Machete is the only CAS aircraft engineered to depart from a structural design philosophy that stresses stressed thin skin construction using either aluminum or composites and apply metal foam sandwich construction which is inherently more damage and ballistic impact tolerant.
Looking at effective CAS aircraft of the past, most of them were built largely of 2024 and 7075 aluminum. The P-47, A-1 and A-10 were all built primarily from thin aluminum skins stiffened by frames, bulkheads, longerons and stringers. While the A-10 does offer discrete crew protection in the form of a titanium armor “bath tub,” the remainder of the aircraft is thin skin aluminum. Some A-10 wings were thin enough that they merited a re-skinning with a thicker skin to enable a continued service life. The Machete is the only CAS aircraft ever designed to incorporate this new approach to result in a damage tolerant attack aircraft.
Combining foam metal sandwich construction with rigid titanium bulkheads, frames, sine wave spars and ribs, the aircraft is designed for redundancy offering multiple load-paths and fail-safe construction. This use of Titanium spars and ribs significantly improves aircraft survivability. Employing significant quantities of Titanium, including bulkheads, frames, longerons, stringers and skins, the Machete fuselage is of inherently survivable and crash-worthy design.
All Machete fuel is contained within discrete tanks located in the wings and fuselage. These discrete tanks are either rigid titanium fuel cells or titanium foam metal tanks. Pressurized with an OBIGGS, all fuel tanks provide both fuel storage as well as a structural form that is significantly more survivable. To prevent loss of fuel pressure, whenever possible, fuel lines are contained within fuel tanks. All fuel lines, hydraulic lines and flight control lines are or are placed within Titanium tubing to help ensure survivability. The aircraft flight control, electrical and hydraulic systems are also duplicated whenever possible and physically separated by more than 18 in to ensure redundancy.
Presenting a compact, close coupled arrangement, the Machete configuration is directed toward survivability. The empennage, for instance, is configured such that the Titanium skinned vertical stabilizers provide the aircraft propulsion system with a degree of profile shielding. Learning from the A-10, the Machete empennage is slightly oversized to ensure continued control in the event of significant loss of stabilizer area during combat. Additional reductions in overall aircraft vulnerable area are derived from the use of a low-wing situated directly beneath the aircraft fuselage fuel tanks, ammo magazine and to a degree, propulsion system, as shielding. The use of vertically sloped forward fuselage cross sections further improves survivability by ensuring that the majority of incoming ballistic projectiles will be received as deflection impacts met by Titanium skins.
Machete Discrete Armor consists of materials which function wholly as armor, serving no secondary structural purpose. The SM-28S employs no less than 500 lbs of discrete armor, while the SM-28T has more than 1,000 lbs of discrete armor. Placed within critical vulnerable areas including the aircraft cockpit, powerplant zone, electrical generation, environmental, hydraulic and control systems, as well as around the internal ammunition drum and avionics bay, benefit from discrete armor. To ensure crew survivability, the Machete cockpit is an integral unit contained within a unitized Armored Cockpit Module (ACM). The ACM is a laser welded, titanium foam metal sandwich armor structure, conceptually identical to the A-10 crew protection structure with Titanium armor thickness ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 in.
The discrete armor used throughout the Machete, including the ACM, includes both foam metal sandwich armor as well as composite metal form armors and Stavatti proprietary laminates of alloy and composite materials including multiple layers of Titanium, Kevlar, Spectra® 2000 and Spectra® Shield. Thickness of the Discrete Armor laminate varies based upon specific application, ranging from 0.25 in to more than 1.5 in. Additional armor technologies including advanced alloy, ceramic, metal ceramic, aramid, and ballistic plastic may serve as discrete armor in specific Machete regions.
Composed of bullet-resistant polycarbonate, the SM-28 transparent bubble canopy is no less than 1.00 in thick throughout and provides impact protection against a 4 lb bird up to airspeeds in excess of 450 kts. To reduce signature, the canopy features an Indium Tin Oxide coating. Ensuring crew protection through 0.44 Magnum/7.62mm caliber small arms, the canopy benefits from technologies originally developed at USAF Rome and later Wright Research Labs (AFRL) to produce high strength, damage tolerant injection molded canopies that are more affordable to produce in large quantity than traditional canopies.
Enhancing crew survivability, the SM-28S/T is equipped with the highly reliable and proven Martin Baker MKUS.16L or MK16E zero-zero ejection seat(s). The ejection seat is provided with both sequential and auto-eject features. Incorporating a comprehensive internal electronic countermeasures suite, proven Radar Warning Receivers (RWRs), Laser Warning Receivers (LWRs), Missile Approach Warning Systems (MAWs) and Self Protection Jammers (SPJs) produced by Elisra, Elta, BAE Systems and Raytheon are offered as customer selected, standard equipment. The AN/ALE-47 electronic countermeasures dispenser system with fourteen aircraft integrated dispensers as standard equipment for the SM-28 series.
For the Machete, survivability has been viewed from all aspects. It is a robust aircraft that can maneuver effectively at low level, saturate the threat environment with managed electronic warfare, provide for decoys and electromagnetic confusion when facing guided missile threats and provide for both air vehicle and crew protection or escape when enduring ballistic impact.
The SM-28S/T Machete will be qualified to MIL-HDBK-516B Airworthiness Certification Criteria in accordance with AFPD 62-6 and AFI 62-601. The SM-28S/T will also be relevant FAA Type certified for day/night VFR/IFR operations in the the Normal, Utility and Aerobatic Categories. The SM-28S/T manufacturing process and production line will be FAA Production Certified. The SM-28S/T will be certified for, single pilot IFR operations and to fly in known icing conditions. The SM-28S/T will have a certified flight envelope cleared for stalls, spins, aileron rolls, barrel rolls, Chandelles, Cloverleafs, Cuban Eights, Immelmans, Lazy-Eights, Split-S and additional maneuvers.
The SM-28S/T will be properly certified/qualified to meet acquisition requirements for service as a USAF/USN/USMC weapon system. The SM-28S/T will be qualified to allow for U.S. Allied/Mentor operation. The SM-28S/T will be flight tested at the USAF AFFTC at Edwards AFB and other qualified test centers. SM-28S/T stores qualification will be performed at the AFFTTC and NAS China Lake. The SM-28S/T will be qualified to carry all stores identified within SM-287S/T Warload and Stores chart.
The SM-28S will have an operational Cost Per Flight Hour (CPFH) of approximately $4,078 per hour, including an aircrew cost of $587 per hour and a fuel cost of $984 per hour. The CPFH estimates assume an annual utilization rate of 350 FH/PAA.
The SM-28T will have an operational Cost Per Flight Hour (CPFH) of approximately $4,708 per hour, including an aircrew cost of $1,174 per hour and a fuel cost of $984 per hour. The CPFH estimates assume an annual utilization rate of 350 FH/PAA.
Stavatti projects SM-28S MTBF to be 6.80 Hours with 10.44 MMH/FH. Stavatti projects the SM-28T will have an MTBF of 6.62 Hours with 10.68 MMH/FH.
The SM-28 has been designed for an operational service life of 15,000 hours, accumulating an average of 350 hours per annum. Aircraft fatigue life will be based upon 30,000 takeoffs and landings (cycles). The aircraft maximum design load factor limit is +7.5G and -3.75G at Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight (MTOW) with maximum external stores and full internal fuel (6,000 lbs).
Designed for operation from austere, unprepared locations and semi-prepared surfaces, the SM-28S/T is designed for operation in arid, desert, tropical, arctic and sea-salt environments and is capable of functioning without reduction in mission capable rates in -25°C to 55°C environments. The SM-28S/T will be equipped and FAA certified for single-pilot day/night IFR operations. The SM-28S/T will be able to operate in ground conditions from -25°C to 55°C and in flight conditions from -55°C to 60°C.
Single Seat Close Air Support (CAS), Anti-Armor (AA) and Maritime Strike (MS) All Weather Attack Aircraft
Single Pilot Seated on a Martin Baker MKUS.16L Zero-Zero Ejection Seat
One (1) General Electric Aircraft Engines Non-Afterburning F414 Derivative Turbofan Delivering 14,756 lb st.
Cantilever three spar semi-monocoque titanium foam metal sandwich wing, canard and empennage with modular four element semi-monocoque titanium and aluminum foam metal sandwich fuselage.
One Ventral Centerline Mounted General Dynamics Four Barrel GAU-13/A 30mm Gatling Cannon with 1,000 rds;
Eight Underwing Stores Pylons with 14-in Suspension for a Maximum External Warload of 12,000 lbs.
|Wingspan||53 ft 0 in|
|Length Overall||38 ft 6 in|
|Height Overall||12 ft 11 in|
|Wing Area||354 sq ft|
|Wheelbase||16 ft 2 in|
|Wheeltrack||12 ft 1 in|
|Empty Weight||16,000 lbs|
|Maximum Internal Fuel||6,000 lbs|
|Max External Load/Warload||12,000 lbs|
|Max Useful Load||20,000 lbs|
|Typical Combat Weight (TCW)||26,800 lbs|
|Max Take-Off Weight (MTOW)||36,000 lbs|
Two Seat Close Air Support (CAS), Anti-Armor/Maritime Strike (AA/MS), All Weather Attack and Advanced Trainer/Lead-In Fighter Aircraft (AT/LIF)
Flight Crew of Two Seated in Tandem on Martin Baker MKUS.16L Zero-Zero Ejection Seats
One (1) General Electric Aircraft Engines Non-Afterburning F414 Derivative Turbofan Delivering 14,756 lb st.
Cantilever three spar semi-monocoque titanium foam metal sandwich wing, canard and empennage with modular four element semi-monocoque titanium and aluminum foam metal sandwich fuselage.
One Ventral Centerline Mounted General Dynamics Four Barrel GAU-13/A 30mm Gatling Cannon with 600 rds;
Eight Underwing Stores Pylons with 14-in Suspension for a Maximum External Warload of 12,000 lbs.
|Wingspan||53 ft 0 in|
|Length Overall||38 ft 6 in|
|Height Overall||12 ft 11 in|
|Wing Area||354 sq ft|
|Wheelbase||16 ft 2 in|
|Wheeltrack||12 ft 1 in|
|Empty Weight||16,000 lbs|
|Maximum Internal Fuel||6,000 lbs|
|Max External Load/Warload||12,000 lbs|
|Max Useful Load||20,000 lbs|
|Typical Combat Weight (TCW)||26,800 lbs|
|Max Take-Off Weight (MTOW)||36,000 lbs|
The SM-28 is now under development and is not currently in production. Upon entering production, the Per Unit Flyaway Cost (Flyaway Cost) of SM-28 Turbofan Machete aircraft will be dependent upon the specific model, model block configuration, customer selected weapon system sensor-avionics-instrumentation-electronic warfare-armament systems package, and all related support equipment specific to an individual aircraft, not including fixed or expendable external stores (external or drop tanks, ordinance, pods and pylons), spares or ground support equipment.
Based upon a Standard Weapon System Configuration (SWSC) developed for each member of the SM-28 Machete family in support of the marketing and export of aircraft to NATO allied air defense forces, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Per Unit Flyaway Cost range and associated Median Cost has been projected for each Machete model. Projected ROM Flyaway Costs for Block 10, Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP) SM-28 Machete aircraft of SWSC, in 2017 United States Dollars (USD), are as provided. All projected ROM costs herein provided are approximate estimations issued to assist potential procurement bodies for future force budgetary planning only. Projected ROM costs are not contractually binding:
*Costs are in CY2017 United States Dollars/Federal Reserve Notes (USD FeRNs)
As indicated, the Per Unit Flyaway Cost (Flyaway Cost) of SM-28 Turbofan Machete aircraft is between approximately $20,000,000 (twenty million) and $28,000,000 (twenty-eight million) United States Dollars (USD), depending upon specific model and configuration.
These ROM, approximate Flyaway Costs apply to one (1) basic Turbofan Machete platform (Stavatti Model 28 S or T ) of Standard Weapon System Configuration (SWSC). In an effort to simplify the marketing and distribution of the Machete weapon system worldwide, Stavatti has developed the SWSC. The SM-28 SWSC represents a common SM-28 configuration which is readily suitable for mass production and expedient delivery to the customer. Stavatti customers may purchase SM-28 SWSC aircraft at a specified flyaway cost plus applicable duties and export/delivery expenses.
SM-28 SWSCs are specified within the SM-28 Configuration Control Statement (CCS) document as issued by Stavatti Aerospace Ltd for specific Machete models as appropriately configured for specific domestic and allied customers. Contact Stavatti or visit Machete Product Literature for a copy of an appropriate CCS. A portion of the avionics, displays, armament and related systems associated with the SM-28 SWSC are also indicated in the Machete Specifications page of this website. The following support documentation, options, equipment and material is also included with each SM-28 of SWSC:
U.S. Standard Airworthiness Certificate, Export Certificate of Airworthiness, Weight and Balance Data Sheets/Weight and Balance Plotter, Aircraft/Engine/Armament System Log Books, Abbreviated Checklist, Flight Manual, Pilot‘s Operating Manual, Avionics Wiring Diagrams, Hydromechanical Systems Manual, Maintenance Manual (Airframe), Illustrated Parts Catalog (Airframe), Wiring Diagram Manual (Airframe), Weight and Balance Manual, CAS Air Combat Manual, COIN Air Combat Manual, Special Combat Operations Manual, Advanced Training Instructional Manual (SM-28T), Component Maintenance Manual, Structural Repair Manual, System Control Code Programmers Manual, Illustrated Tool and Equipment Manual, Nondestructive Inspection Manual, Engine Maintenance Manuals, Engine Illustrated Parts Catalogs, Parts Warranty Listing, additional miscellaneous information concerning engine, airframe, avionics and armament support, Aircraft Tie-Down Kit (including tie-down anchors and cable, wheel chocks, control locks, pitot-static port covers, etc.), Aircraft Full Canopy Sunshade/Cover, Basic Aircraft Tool Kit, Aircraft Emergency Survival Kit, HGU-86/P pilot flight helmet and accompanying flight/anti-g suit of customer specified sizing (Note: SM-28L aircraft include two helmets and anti-g suits), 24 hours of Stavatti provided SM-28 operational ground schooling/orientation for one flight officer, 24 hours of Stavatti provided SM-28 maintenance and service ground schooling/orientation for one maintenance officer, 5 hours of SM-28 orientation flying in a Stavatti owned and operated SM-28 for one flight officer, Custom Paint Scheme consisting of up to 10 base colors and up to 25 trim colors as well livery/noseart, 675 or 470 (model dependent) rounds of installed 30 mm ammunition for GAU-13/A cannon, Full Fuel consisting of 6,000 lbs of JP-8 installed in aircraft, additional equipment and a 2,000-Hour ‘Nose-to-Nozzle’ Manufacturer’s Warranty.
All publications, documents and manuals will be provided in both hardcopy bound print as well as CD-ROM and Aerofiche format. In addition to documentation supplied by Stavatti Military Aerospace, additional documentation may be provided detailing the operation/maintenance of specific aircraft systems by specific aircraft system manufacturers. Stavatti will provide Service Bulletins, Service Letters, Air Worthiness Directorates and manual revisions for the duration of aircraft operational service life.
The Flyaway Cost of the SM-28 does not include the cost of any spares, external stores/armament, or other logistical support that may be associated with a weapon system procurement contract. The additional costs associated with the provision of spares, external stores/armament, Contractor Logistical Support or any other indicative cost options, maybe provided by Stavatti. All Flyaway Cost data provided herein is not contractually binding and are conceptual in nature.
The noted Flyaway Costs only apply to the SM-28 of SWSC. The SM-28 SWSC does not represent aircraft configured to satisfy specific customer requirements. Stavatti desires to satisfy all customer needs and requirements. In so doing, the SM-28 will employ open avionics and systems architecture allowing the SM-28 platform to employ a wide variety of avionics, armament and sensor systems. Customers are invited to procure aircraft which employ customized systems configurations, as specially developed by Stavatti. The Flyaway Cost of SM-28 aircraft of customized configuration will be dependent upon the systems specified and is determined only upon assessment of the specific configuration. Generally, the Flyaway Cost of SM-28 aircraft as projected will fall between $20 million and $28 million dependent upon ultimate configuration.
The SM-28 MACHETE series of aircraft is currently under development by Stavatti Aerospace Ltd-Tactical Air Warfare Systems Division. The SM-28 is not presently in production and is not available for procurement at this time. Stavatti is receiving orders for the SM-28 at the present time, hence initial production aircraft will be produced in satisfaction of backlog orders. As of First Quarter 2017, the estimated time-frames for initiation of Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP), Initial Operational Capability (IOC) within end-user air defense arms and Full Rate Production (FRP) are as projected:
|MACHETE MODEL||PROGRAM PHASE||TIME-FRAME*|
Stavatti reserves the right to adjust, modify, expedite, cancel or otherwise enhance the projected dates for SM-28 Machete series LRIP, IOC or FRP at our discretion. All program phase time-frame estimates are for the benefit of future force program budget planners and are non-contractually binding.
Generally speaking, Stavatti projects the SM-28 will be available for initial delivery in the 2021-2023 time frame, back-logs not withstanding. Prior to entering Full Rate Production (FRP), the SM-28 must complete a comprehensive RDT&E program, followed by twelve (12) to twenty-four (24) months of Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP). The SM-28 RDT&E program will result in the fabrication of three (3) Machete Prototype Air Vehicles (PAVs) of each series model (SM-28S/T and SM-47), which will undergo over 1,500 hours of flight testing. Conclusion of the flight test program will result in FAA FAR 25 type and production certification as well as applicable MIL SPEC qualification.
LRIP consists of a one to two year gradual ramp-up of production, focused upon the manufacture of ten (10) to twenty (20) Machete production aircraft. All aircraft produced during LRIP are considered Production Articles. The first two (2) to six (6) Machetes produced in LRIP will likely remain in possession of Stavatti to serve as company demonstrators. The remaining Machetes produced during LRIP will be delivered to satisfy customer orders. Due to security restrictions, Stavatti does not openly publish the current backlog for Machete orders. Stavatti will begin satisfying this backlog through LRIP.
Stavatti anticipates initial SM-28 Machete models to enter Full-Rate Production (FRP) from 2021 through 2041 and beyond. Full-Rate Production will result in the production of between 50 and 100 SM-28 aircraft annually, with an anticipated SM-28 delivery lead time of 12 months. All SM-28 production availability schedules are subject to change.
SM-28 Machete aircraft are marketed and sold directly by Stavatti Aerospace Ltd. to the end user as a Direct Commercial Sale (DCS) with exception of specific systems which require a Foreign Military Sales (FMS) component including, but not limited to: IFF and COMSEC/TEMPEST related systems and equipment. Furthermore, all Global Positioning Systems (GPS) receivers incorporating a PPS (Y) Interface must be approved for export through the Joint GPS Program Office.
Stavatti reserves the right to market and sell the SM-28 through the U.S. FMS program for purposes of assisting customers who desire the procurement of major weapon systems with military credits or direct program/operational support from the U.S. DoD.
To simplify the procurement process, Stavatti prefers to structure SM-28 procurement contracts as Fixed Cost Contracts (FCC). Customers may elect to procure SM-28 SWSC aircraft or SM-28s configured for customized end user requirements. In the event customers wish to procure SM-28 SWSC aircraft, there is a distinct possibility that aircraft may be procured from existing Stavatti inventory, thereby significantly reducing delivery lead-time.
If customers desire an SM-28 of custom configuration, the procurement lead-time may increase from 6 to 12 months due to the lead-times associated with the procurement of specific aircraft systems including powerplant, avionics, displays and armament. It is for this reason that the Standard Lead Time for the procurement of SM-28 aircraft is estimated at 12 months from date of contract signing.
Stavatti does not employ a standard SM-28 series FMS procurement process. All SM-28 procurement performed under FMS must be coordinated on a case-by-case basis. Stavatti’s standard SM-28 DCS procurement process for all SM-28 aircraft is as follows:
1) Customer provides Stavatti with a Letter of Intent (LOI). An LOI is a statement indicating that the customer (client nation) intends to enter into a binding contract for the procurement of a specified number of SM-28 aircraft. The LOI must include information relating to the number, model and configuration which the customer wishes to procure, the address of the procurement body, a signature of a qualified purchasing representative of the procurement body and the address of the delivery destination of the SM-28 aircraft.
2) Stavatti will submit forms DSP-5 or DSP-73 or DSP-85 as appropriate to the State Department -Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) to obtain the necessary export licenses associated with the SM-28 procurement by the specific customer/client nation. Export licenses are not required for domestic sales to the US DoD/government user agencies. Once an approved export license is received by Stavatti, the customer and Stavatti may proceed with contract draft and signing.
3) Customer and Stavatti draft and enter into/sign a SM-28 Machete Procurement Contract (PC). The PC will specify the precise configuration of the SM-28 aircraft to be procured including powerplant, avionics, instrumentation, escape systems, armament, APU, armor plating, sensors, EW suite, tires, paint scheme and livery, warranty, associated support equipment, etc. Delivery destination, anticipated delivery date and total contact value will be specified, as well as all other information necessary to produce and deliver the contracted SM-28 aircraft to the customer in their desired configuration. The Customer must ensure the PC is accompanied by a Contract Initiation Payment (CIP) valued at ONE THIRD (1/3 or 33.3%) of the Total Contract Value to be paid to Stavatti.
4) Stavatti completes the production of SM-28 Machete E aircraft to the “Green” or Un-Painted/Pre-Final Integration stage. Prior to “Painting” and completing final integration of aircraft armament, sensor, avionic and EW systems, the Customer is required to provide a Green Aircraft Payment (GAP) valued at ONE THIRD (1/3 or 33.3%) of the Total Contract Value to be paid to Stavatti. Once the GAP is received by Stavatti, “Green” aircraft enter the painting/ final integration phase.
5) Stavatti completes and delivers the SM-28S/T Machete aircraft as specified in the PC. Upon delivery (or upon completion in the event the Customer receives/takes possession of the completed aircraft directed at the factory) of the procured SM-28 aircraft to the customer, the balance of the total contract value, equal to the remaining ONE THIRD (1/3 or 33.3%) of the Total Contract Value, must be paid to Stavatti.
Stavatti will receive payment for domestic SM-28 Machete sales by wire transfer of funds, certified check, United States Dollars/Federal Reserve Notes (USD/FeRNs), gold or alternate precious Platinum Group Metal (PGM). Stavatti will receive payment for foreign export SM-28 Machete sales by wire transfer of funds, United States Dollars/Federal Reserve Notes (USD/FeRNs), gold or alternate precious Platinum Group Metal (PGM).
In compliance with the Arms Export Controls Act (AECA) and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR: CFR 120-130), Stavatti restricts the marketing and sale of the SM-28 Machete air weapon system to qualified U.S. and NATO allied air defense arms. In support of current U.S. Arms Embargoes as issued by the U.S. State Department, Stavatti will not export SM-28 Machete series aircraft to any of the following nations:
Stavatti recognizes that the status of State Department Arms Embargoes is in constant flux with nations being added or removed from the Arms Embargo List from time to time. Stavatti therefore encourages parties and potential customers interested in procuring SM-28 Machete series aircraft to visit the State Department-Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) Website at: https://www.pmdtc.org/ for a current State Department Embargo Reference List.
Belarus, Burma, Central African Republic, People’s Republic of China, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Haiti, Iran, Kyrgystan, Lebanon, Libya, North Korea, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Venezuela, Zimbabwe
Prior to marketing the SM-28 Machete series to any potential customer nation, Stavatti contacts DDTC to receive “Prior Approval To Market.” Once prior approval is received, Stavatti initiates a comprehensive marketing program which consists of information and support material which is unavailable to the Public Domain. Prior to issuance of a production contract or purchase order, Stavatti submits an export license application (DSP-5, DSP-61, DSP-73, etc.) for the purpose of obtaining an export license in support of the anticipated contract or purchase order. The export license application must be accompanied by attachments, some of which must be completed in-whole or in-part by the potential customer/procurement body. Furthermore, a Letter of Intent (LOI) or similar official document including a Procurement Contract must be issued by the intended procurement body to serve as an attachment to accompany the export license application for review by the State Department-DDTC in support of the SM-28 Machete series export licensing process.
Stavatti is a State Department-DDTC registered manufacturer and exporter or U.S. Munitions List (USML) Category I, II, III, IV, VIII (Aircraft), X as well as additional items. Copies of expired, prior year State Department-DDTC Registration Letters are available for review on the Stavati Licenses webpage. Current Registration Letters received from DDTC are not posted online for security purposes.
Stavatti will assign each SM-28 Machete aircraft with a 2,000 hour, Nose-to-Nozzle, Manufacturer’s Limited Warranty. Stavatti expressly warrants each new SM-28 Machete aircraft (exclusive of powerplant and powerplant accessories as supplied by P&WC which are covered under P&WC warranties), including factory installed avionics, armament, electronic countermeasures and additional factory installed equipment, both standard to the type and optional, to be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use and service for a period of 2,000 flight hours beginning upon delivery of the SM-28 aircraft to the initial end user.
Stavatti‘s obligation under this warranty will be limited to repairing or replacing, at its sole option, any component or components which within the applicable warranty period are identified by the owner/operator. The repair or replacement of defective components under this warranty will be made by or through any Stavatti or Stavatti approved SM-28 Machete service facility without assessment of fee or cost to the warranty holder for components or labor for removal, installation and/or repair. All import duties, sales taxes and use taxes, if any, on such warranty repairs or replacement components are the sole responsibility of the warranty recipient.
The warranty will apply to any SM-28 aircraft, avionics and fixed aircraft equipment as integrated by Stavatti under production contract by the end user which has been flown, maintained and operated in accordance with Stavatti and other applicable manuals, bulletins, airworthiness directives and other written instructions. The warranty, however, will not apply to SM-28 aircraft, avionics and fixed aircraft equipment as integrated by Stavatti under production contract by the end user which have been subject to misuse, abuse, negligence, accident or battle damage; or which have been altered other than by Stavatti, or contrary to applicable manuals, bulletins, and other written instructions provided by Stavatti, in any way that, in the sole judgement of Stavatti, adversely affects their performance, stability or reliability; or to normal maintenance services (such as powerplant adjustments, cleaning, control rigging, brake and other mechanical adjustments and maintenance inspections); or to the replacement of service items (such as brake linings, filters); or to normal deterioration of appurtenances (such as paint and livery) due to wear.
Each SM-28 Machete procurement contract will incorporate a complete description of all aspects associated with the 2,000 hour `Nose-to-Nozzle’ manufacturers limited warranty. Customers will be able to extend their warranties in 500 hour blocks beyond 2,000 hours for a nominal fee.
SM-28 Machete aircraft will be made available for lease with customer approved credit directly from Stavatti. Stavatti lease programs are subject to U.S. State Department-Office of Defense Trade Controls Approval and may be conducted as DCS or FMS lease programs. FMS lease programs are coordinated through an appropriate U.S. DoD user agency and will generally consist of SM-28 aircraft owned by the U.S. DoD which are then leased, through a DoD negotiated lease agreement, to the end user. FMS lease programs are outside Stavatti’s sphere of influence and parties interested in leasing SM-28 aircraft through FMS are urged to contact the U.S. DoD.
Stavatti DCS leases will involve the lease of Stavatti owned aircraft to the end user. DCS lease terms and arrangements must be negotiated on a case-by-case basis and are dependent upon the type and number of SM-28 aircraft leased and the qualifications of the nation/air arm leasing the SM-28 aircraft. Typically SM-28 Machete SWSC aircraft will be available for 36, 60 and 120 month leases.
All Stavatti lease customers are subject to pre approval requirements. Additional requirements will also apply to qualify for the SM-28 Machete lease program. All lease customers will be required to maintain current Hull and Liability insurance from a qualified aerospace insurance provider throughout the duration of the lease. All leased SM-28 aircraft must be operated by a qualified, SM-28 Type Certified pilot with a current U.S. First Class Medical or equivalent medical certification and no less than 1,500 hours high performance aircraft experience. In the event lease customers are unable to provide a qualified pilot, Stavatti will provide contract pilot services at a negotiated contract cost. A Stavatti lease maintenance agreement will be implemented in conjunction with the standard 2,000 hour ‘Nose-to-Nozzle’ Limited Manufacturer’s Warranty. The lease customer will be responsible for the costs associated with maintenance and repairs on the SM-28 aircraft hull and systems resulting from the combat environment during the time of lease. In the event an SM-28 aircraft is destroyed and/or damaged to such an extent that the aircraft is considered a total loss, during either peace or war, the lease customer will responsible for the remainder of the lease owed due, plus the purchase price of the aircraft at lease end.
Additional requirements, limitations and restrictions will apply. Contact Stavatti for more information regarding the leasing of SM-28 Machete aircraft.
SM-28 Machete aircraft will be available for licensed production in qualified facilities worldwide. Licensing of SM-28 Machete production is subject to U.S. State Department-Directorate of Defense Trade Controls Approval. Stavatti is responsible for coordinating and negotiating all SM-28 Machete licensing worldwide.
Stavatti will permit the production licensing of all SM-28 series models in its entirety, in kit form or, alternatively, industry teaming for the production of SM-28 aircraft in-part or in component form. Licensing arrangements must be considered on a case-by-case basis. Generally, Stavatti assumes license production involves the production of entire SM-28 aircraft from an indigenous producer within a customer nation. To produce the SM-28 under license a customer must first exhibit possession of a qualified, appropriate aircraft production facility capable of producing the SM-28 aircraft to the degree desired (i.e. in whole or in part) as well as qualified engineers and assembly personnel to support the production process. Customers must then pay an initial licensing fee, as well as annual licensing maintenance fees and a royalty on aircraft produced/sold.
Qualified Customers who produce the SM-28 under license will receive significant technical and production support from Stavatti, including access to both Stavatti’s U.S. domestic SM-28 production facility as well as complete familiarization with SM-28 prototypes, production vehicles and demonstrators.
In the event a nation desires to produce the SM-28 under license, but lacks the facilities and equipment to do so, Stavatti can provide total support and assistance with regard to the organization and creation of a suitable production facility.
To address the issue of global fiscal responsibility with regard to necessary defense spending, Stavatti offers numerous Offset opportunities associated with SM-28 procurement.
The standard cost offset associated with SM-28 procurement is the licensed production of SM-28 subsystems and components in the customer nation. Stavatti maintains industry partners worldwide and desires to expand major airframe component/assembly production into your region of the world.
Barter is an offset opportunity which Stavatti will willingly consider. Oil, minerals, and additional goods may serve as suitable barter toward the procurement of SM-28 aircraft. Additionally, Stavatti will take trade-ins from existing nation fighter/trainer/ transport aircraft fleets, serving to reduce overall aircraft procurement costs.
Contact Stavatti to discover offsets which may be right for you.